The language of the time period is reflected in the questions.
Who organized the 1968 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom?
Bayard Rustin was often at Dr. Martin Luther King's side as a lead strategist. He organized the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (and also read the list of demands), though his name does not appear on the program. In 2013, President Obama posthumously awarded Rustin the Presidential Medal of Freedom. At the ceremony, the medal was given to his partner Walter Naegle. Check out the film "Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin" on PBS
Who founded the first organization in history to champion for the rights of gender and sexual minorities?
In 1897 in Berlin, Germany, Jewish physician Magnus Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee. The Committee’s initial focus was to repeal Paragraph 175 by scientifically proving the innate nature of (as today’s language defines) lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans people. Petitions were submitted to parliament in 1898, 1922 and 1925, but were rejected. Signatories in support of the repeal included Albert Einstein, Leo Tolstoy, Herman Hesse, Thomas Mann and Rainer Maria Rilke.
What does the acronym PRIDE stand for?
PRIDE (Person Rights in Defense and Education) was a radical gay political organization founded in 1966 in Los Angeles. PRIDE led demonstrations against oppression by the Los Angeles police and set the stage for coalition organizing for Gay Rights. The first PRIDE newsletter was published in 1966 and soon evolved to the Los Angeles Advocate newspaper. Today, you will recognize the publication as the Advocate magazine.
Which SCOTUS case decriminalized homosexuality?
The question to the Supreme Court of the United States was whether the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection and due process were violated. (Were criminal convictions for adult consensual intimacy in the home a violation of vital interests in liberty and privacy?) This landmark 2003 case overturned Bowers v. Hardwick and set the stage for marriage equality.
The Stonewall riots - a key turning point for Gay Rights and the LGBT movement - began on:
Beginning in the 1950s, the police routinely raided gay bars, conducted uncalled-for ID checks, and made arrests—often roughing up patrons in the process. As the police checked IDs, harassed Stonewall patrons, and made arrests, people became increasingly angry. Patrons resisted and a crowd gathered outside. Protesters hurled bottles and debris at the police and through the bar’s windows. The police reacted with violence, beating and arresting the patrons-turned-protesters. The riots continued from Saturday until Wednesday, with hundreds of people joining in on the fight.
This symbol was used to label, shame, and criminalize homosexuals during the Holocaust, but was reclaimed by the LGBT community to reflect strength, resiliency, and pride.
The pink triangle was used by the Nazis in concentration camps to identify homosexuals. They were slightly larger than the other colored triangles so that guards could identify them from a distance. When the concentration camps were finally liberated, virtually all of the prisoners with a pink triangle were put back in prison.
Which organization was formed in 1950 in Los Angeles to combat the McCarthy-era witch hunts of communists and homosexuals?
The Mattachine Society began as a discussion group, which led to an analysis of homosexuals through the lens of an oppressed minority group. Their purpose quickly evolved into cultural and political liberation, pronouncing the importance of building a gay community and using grassroots organizing to address discriminatory policies and practices within the federal government. (The organization was under the watchful eye of the FBI during the 1950s and 1960s!) The name of the organization was derived from an Italian word meaning a court jester who dared to tell the truth to the king.
She was a famous playwright and one of the first official members of the New York City chapter of the Daughters of Bilitis.
In 1957, Lorraine Hansberry joined the Daughters of Bilitis (the first national organization for lesbians) and was a contributing writer to its publication "The Ladder", discussing the intersectionality of oppression. Two years later, her groundbreaking play "A Raisin in the Sun" hit the Broadway stage.